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Science Sample
Spoken English
Spoken English


       Types of Soil

1)    Alluvial soils

2)     Black soils

3)     Laterite soils

4)     Red and yellow soils

5)    Forest and mountainous soils

6)    Arid soils.


Alluvial soil:-

1)    It is the most fertile type of soil.

2)    The alluvial  soils have been formed and deposited by three important Himalayan river systems i.e.  the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.

3)    Alluvial soils are of two types- old alluvial soil  (Bangar) and new alluvial soil (Khadar).

4)    Mostly these soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops.


Black soil:-

 1)      These soils are black in colour and are also famous as regur soils.

2)      This soil is ideal for growing cotton.

3)       The climatic conditions along with the parent rock material are the important factors for the formation of black soil.

4)      Black soil covers the areas of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.


Red and yellow soil

1)      Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.

2)       Yellow and red soils are also found in parts of Orissa, Chhattisgarh etc.

3)      These soils develop reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks.

4)      It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.


Laterite soil

 1)    Laterite has been derived from the Latin word ‘later’ which means brick.

2)     It is found in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall.

3)    This soil  is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rain.

4)    After adopting appropriate soil conservation techniques particularly in the hilly areas of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, this soil is very useful for growing tea and coffee.


Arid soil

 1)    Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.

2)     There  texture is sandy and nature is saline.

3)    In some areas the salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating the water.

4)    Due to the dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture.


Forest soil

1)    Forest soils are found in the hilly and mountainous areas.

2)    The soils texture varies according to the mountain environment where they are formed.

3)    They are loamy and silty in valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes.

4)    Forest soils are found in the lower parts of the valleys particularly on the river terraces.





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